Environmental Epigenetic Factor

By the end of the last century, it was known that DNA by itself does not determine all characteristics of an organism, including humans. The environment, stress one perceives, and nutrition, to name a few, play a vital part in determining the response of an organism, as much as the DNA itself. Thus, it is known now that both nature (genetic makeup) and nurture (environmental factors) play equally important roles in the responses observed, both at the cellular and organism levels. Thus, humans are affected by both genetic and epigenetic factors.

Some environmentally induced changes in the epigenome are recorded in genomic DNA methylation patterns for up to three generations.

Certain stages in development and cell types can be thought of as particularly sensitive to epigenetic change due to the resulting severity of the outcome for the individual or the potential for affecting multiple generations.

      Observations demonstrate that the environmental toxicants examined induced transgenerational ovarian adult-onset disease, and of              spermatogenic cell defects and testis disease. 



  • Early life: Early embryo and germ line development can be affected by in utero exposures.
  • Gametogenesis and pre-conception: environmental exposures to oocytes and spermatozoa that go onto produce an embryo (pre-conception exposures) are also an important consideration
  • Somatic versus germ cell change: If an epigenetic change occurs in a somatic cell or in a germ cell that is correctly ‘reset’ during germ line development in the subsequent offspring.
  • Transgenerational Ovarian Disease
  • Transgenerational Granulosa Cell Transcriptome
  • Transgenerational Granulosa Cell Epigenome
  • Transgenerational Spermatogenic Cell Abnormality
  • Sertoli Cell Transgenerational Transcriptome
  • Sertoli Cell Transgenerational Epigenome

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